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Monday, 24 August 2015

“Fine Pearls,” from a "Modest Maker"

Natural Pearls are formed in Marine Pearl Oysters or Freshwater Mussels by a living process. These humble organisms live in recluse, while they make the magnificent Iridescent pearl that lights up the person it adorns. Pearl oysters and mussels belong to the Bivalvia class of organisms in the phylum, Mollusca.
Most mollusks with shells can produce pearls, but only certain species of bivalve mollusks, produce fine nacreous pearls, which have high commercial value.

Iridescence, that Dispels the Darkness of Ocean Caves!
A nacreous pearl is made from layers of nacre secreted by the bivalve mollusk. When a tiny object gets trapped in the mantle folds inside the shell, the oyster covers this foreign object with nacre, as a protective measure. The outer layer of pearls and the inside layer of the shells of pearl bivalves are made of nacre. Nacre (also known as Mother of Pearl ) is secreted by the bivalve and consists mainly of layers of aragonite ( a mineral formed of calcium carbonate crystals) separated by sheets of organic matter(called conchiolin). With visible light, this multi layered, intricate and strong structure of Nacre creates its characteristic Iridescence that lights up its surroundings in many colors and hues. Fine layer upon layer of nacre is secreted around the irritant object, and after years of this living process a pearl is formed. Natural pearls come in many sizes, colors and shapes depending on the nacre secretions.

Pearl Oysters, Pinctada margaritifera and Pinctada mertensi, which live in the sea produce fine natural pearls of superior quality. In Pearl farming, cultured pearls are made by inserting “irritants” such as tiny bits of shells or beads within the mantle tissue of the oysters and mussels, to stimulate the secretion process.

Please visit the site given below and search for "Pearls" if you wish to know more about this topic.


or  Click here

Post updated on 16 November 2015

Tuesday, 10 March 2015

Fermentation – Microorganisms, Doing Mighty Work

Fermentation as a phenomenon and its uses, has an ancient history and continues to be a dynamic area in modern times. This basically natural phenomenon involves microorganisms and the enzymes they produce. Fermentation  is being researched, modified and put to a plethora of uses that enrich our lives. We mostly associate microorganisms and pathogens with the harm and havoc they do to our health, environment, property and other assets, and our pockets. Let us now consider the contributions of benign microorganisms.

Fermentation involves the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using microorganisms such as yeasts and bacteria, under anaerobic (lack of oxygen) conditions.   The organic acids formed, such as lactic and acetic acid, have a preservative function. For example, Lactic acid produced by the fermentation of milk by lactic acid bacteria preserves cheese, yogurt and other fermented milk products. 

 In the late 1850’s Louis Pasteur, well known for his exceptional contributions to microbiology and medicine, showed that fermentation is a metabolic process and the result of the action of living microorganisms. He identified yeast as a living organism, which fermented or converted sugar to alcohol.  In 1897 Eduard Buchner a German scientist further discovered that a secretion of yeast caused the fermentation of sugar. He demonstrated that the yeast secretion (which he called zymase) fermented sugar even when there were no living yeast cells in the mixture. Later, the term enzyme came to be applied to all ferments. Now we know that fermentation is caused by enzymes that are produced by microorganisms.

Thursday, 12 February 2015

Photosynthesis - We Owe Our Energy To Our "Green Plants"

All living organisms need energy to power their life functions and to survive. The sun  is the source of almost all energy on earth. In Photosynthesis, Chlorophyll, the green pigment found in the leaves of green plants traps this solar energy and converts it into chemical energy in the form of sugars. Chemically, this process involves the reaction between carbon dioxide and water to produce glucose and oxygen, with the help of light energy. The glucose sugar (or starch into which the sugar is converted and stored) is the plant’s food energy.

                                                     Sunlight energy 

                               6CO2  +  6H2O   ------------>     C6H12O6   +   6O2 


Plants make their own food.  For humans and animals, directly or indirectly, plants are the source of their food,  and they obtain their energy by the oxidation of this food. The oxygen released into the air by plants is used by plants, humans and animals for Respiration.  Green plants and Photosynthesis are therefore, extremely important to life on earth.


As we know, Breathing is the physical mechanism by which living organisms take in Oxygen ( present in the air), into their bodies and give out carbon dioxide. Cellular Respiration, which produces energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from food nutrients and Oxygen, involves several metabolic processes. The main components or nutrients present in different types of food are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, water, minerals, vitamins and fibre. Thus along with food, Oxygen has an important role in Energy production, and to be energetic we have to "Breathe Well".  Physical exercises help us Re-energize. Physical exercise that is suitable to an individual, improves blood circulation, enabling better availability of food nutrients and Oxygen, to the body tissues.


Re-Energizing, and Relaxing, the natural way!

Post updated, 24 July 2015

Thursday, 5 February 2015

Loyalty Programs and Online Surveys

Loyalty Programs and Online Surveys
- for Extra income and Various benefits.

We join these programs generally, for side income & other benefits. Members have therefore to use discretion while combining them with the main income and other commitments. We have to be alert, as regards the credibility of the company and earning potential of the program. Most of the programs are time consuming, so we might as well consider, in value terms, our work & time inputs and remuneration or incentives received.


Swagbucks has positioned its program as "the Web's premier rewards and loyalty destination. The program allows web and mobile members to earn virtual currency (called Swag Bucks) for doing what they already do online every day- watching videos, searching the web, playing games, participating in market research and shopping online. Swag Bucks can then be redeemed for valuable rewards, including gift cards to the world's online and offline retailers."
Currently, Swagbucks Program is available in the USA, the UK, Ireland, Australia, India and Canada.
You may use any one of these referral links to get more details and Register with Swagbucks: 




Survey Savvy is an Online Survey company. Members receive surveys depending on the data requirements of the Research companies and their demographics. Also, you have to complete a screening questionnaire to get selected for the survey. They pay by check and have an attractive Referral program.

For more details, and to Register with SURVEY SAVVY, you may click the referral link given below

Click here 

Posted 05 February 2015
Post updated, 25 April 2017